In this chapter students will learn about Samudragupta, Harshavardhana and South Indian Kingdoms – their conquests and achievements. Here, we have provided answers to all the questions in the Chapter 10 “New Kingdoms And Empires”. These Solutions are created after an in-depth analysis of syllabus and exam pattern. Answers are written in simple language so that it’s easy for students to understand. Studying these Solutions will make their exam preparation simpler.
Intext Question, Page – 104
Q. What does this description tell you about the king ? And also about how kings fought wars ?
The description tell that Samudragupta was a brave warrior, who had fought successful wars. His body was covered with wound marks.
The rulers in those days fought with battle axes, arrows, spikes, spears, barbed darts, swords, javelins, long arrows and many other weapons. The king could wields these weapons of war. Some of the weapons like swords were used in direct combats, while other like javelins and darts were throw from far distance. They had to be aimed accurately.
Intext Question, Page – 105
Q. What was the difference between the way in which Samudragupta treated the rulers of Aryavarta and Dakshinapatha ? Can you suggest any reasons for this difference ?
There were nine rulers in Aryavarta who were uprooted and their kingdom was made part of Samudragupta empire.
There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha. They surrendered after being defeated and he then allowed them to rule again.
Samudragupta adopted different policies because Dakshinpatha was far away from his capital. Since the means of transport were primitive, it was difficult to keep them under control.
Intext Question, Page – 106
Q. Arrange these titles in order of importance :
raja, maharaja-adhiraja, maha-raja.
The following littles are written in ascending order :
Raja, Maha-raja, Maharaj-adhiraja
Intext Question, Page – 107
Q. Look at political map of India and list the present-day states which Harshvardhana passed through when he went (a) to Bengal and (b) up to the Narmada.
Harsha, started from his capital city Kanauj in present Uttar Pradesh and passed through Bihar to reach Bengal or it could be Jharkhand and then Bengal.
To reach up to the Narmada he crossed Madhya Pradesh.
Intext Question, Page – 108
Q. Who were the other rulers who tried to control the coasts and why ? (Hint: see Chapter 9)
The cholas, Cheras and Pandyas controlled the coasts. The chiefs who controlled the coasts became very rich and powerful. They collected the taxes from the merchants and they were powerful so that they control their empire. They had flourishing trade.
Intext Question, Page – 109
Q. What do you think may have been the advantages of having hereditary officers ?
The advantages and disadvantages of having hereditary officers were :
The father could train his son from an early age in the office that he held.
There will be a continuity of policy.
An important son may come to hold office.
Other more competent persons will be deprived of the opportunity to run the office.
Intext Questions, Page – 110
Q. Do you think that if a poor man finds something and reports this to the police he could be treated like this today ?
The king gave a precious ring to Shakuntala, but it was accidentally swallowed by a fish. The fisherman found the ring and went to the palace. The gatemen accused him of theft and the police officer was rude. However, when the king rewarded the fisherman, they wanted to have a share in the reward. Today, the poorman would not be treated in this manner. He will be taken to the court to give his verdict.
Q. Name a famous man who taught in Prakrit and a king who issued inscriptions in Prakrit.(hint : see Chapter 6 and Chapter 7)
Lord Buddha taught in Prakrit language. King Ashoka issued his inscriptions in Prakrit language.
Intex Question, Page – 111
Q. Make a list of all the things that were carried with the army. What did the villagers bring for the king ?
The king travelled with a large army and with an enormous amount of equipment. A part from weapons, they were things of daily use such as pots, pans, furniture, food including animals such as goat, deer, rabbits, vegetables, spices, carried on carts or loaded on to pack animals such as camels and elephants. The army was accompanied by musicians beating drums and others playing horns and trumpets.
Villagers had to provide hospitality along the way. They came with gifts of curd, gur, flowers and provided fodder for animals. They also tried to meet the king and place their complaints before him.
The army left a trail of destruction behind them. The elephants trampled down the huts and fields and the oxen yoked to the carts often ran away.
Intext Questions, Page – 112
Q. Trace the routes that would have been taken by these sailors and soldiers on Map 6.
The Arab merchants and sailors played a very important role in the sea trade between India and Europe. They explored several sea routes. There were others across the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal when sailors took advantage the monsoon winds to cross the seas quickly. If they wanted to reach the western coast of the subcontinent from East Africa or Arabia they chose to sail with the south-west monsoon.
Q. Imagine Harshavardhana army will visit your village next week. Your parents are preparing for the visit. Describe what they say and do.
Parents : Carrying offerings of curd, gur and fodder for animals, come before the king. (They humbly greet the king). Sir, we request you to accept these offering from us.
King : Accepts the offerings and asked his men to keep them at appropriate places. Are you happy in my kingdom.
Parents : We are very happy. Sometimes (with fear in their eyes) the officers are very cruel and forcibly take our animals and farm product.
King : (Hears the complaints) and promises to look into the matter.
Parent take leave. The king sent his spies later on, to find the details. They found that the complaints were genuine and the officers were severely punished.
Let’s Recall, Page – 112
- State whether true or false :
(a) Harishena composed a prashasti in praise of Gautmiputra Shri Satakarni.
(b) The rulers of Aryavarta brought tribute for Samudragupta.
(c) There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha.
(d) Taxila and Madurai were important centres under the control of the Gupta rulers.
(e) Aihole was the capital of the Pallavas.
(f) Local assemblies functioned for several centuries in South India.
- Mention three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana.
The three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana are :
Banabhatta, wrote Harshacharita.
Xuan Zang, the chinese traveller who left a detailed account of what he saw in the court.
- What changes do you find in the army at this time ?
The changes made in the army at this time were :
Like earlier rulers, the king maintained a well organized army, with elephants, chariots, cavalry and foot soldiers.
There were military leaders who provided the king with troops whenever the king asked for them. They were not given regular salaries, but go grants of land. They collected the revenue and used it to maintain soldiers and horses and provide equipment for warfare. These men were known as samantas.
- What were the new administrative arrangements during this period ?
The new administrative arrangements during this period were :
Some important administrative posts were made hereditary, e.g., the poet Harishena was a maha-danda-nayak or the chief judicial officer, like his father.
One person held many offices, e.g., besides being a maha-danda-nayak, Harishena was a kumaramatya which means an important minister of war and peace.
Important men probably had a say in local administration. These included nagar-shreshti or chief banker or merchant of the city, the sarthavaha or leader of the merchant caravans, the parthama-kulika or the chief craftsman and the head of the Kayasthas or scribes.
Let’s Discuss, Page – 113
- What do you think Arvind would have to do if he was acting as Samudragupta ?
If Arvind was acting as Samudragupta he would have to :
lead the army and successfully plan his campaigns in almost all parts of India.
establish am efficient administration and a strong government.
look after the welfare of the people.
hear the complaints and decide cases.
- Do you think ordinary people would have read and understood the prashashtis ? Give reasons for your answer.
The prashasti in praise of Samudragupta was written in Sanskrit language, the language of the learned people.
The prashasti was composed in very long sentences.
so the people may not have understood the prashasti.
Let’s Do, Page – 113
- If you had to make a genealogy for yourself, who are the people you would include in it ? How many generations would you like to show ? Make a chart and fill it.
If I have to make a genealogy of myself. I will include 4 generations (counting myself too). The names are given in Alphabets.
I am (G) a small boy.
my father is (E) and mother (E1)
my grandfather (B) and grandmother (B1)
my great grandfather is (A) and great grandmother is (A1)
- How do you think wars affect the lives of ordinary people today ?
In the present times, the wars adversely affect the lives of the people, e.g. :
The economy of the country is disrupted and prices of the essential commodities also start rising.
There can be large scale destruction, caused due to air warfare.
Chemical warfare and use of nuclear bombs can affect not only the present generation but also many generations to come.