In this chapter, students will learn about the vedas, Megaliths and the Inamgaon. The exercise contains 2 questions under the ‘let’s recall’, 2 questions under ‘let’s discuss’ and 3 questions under ‘let’s do’ section. In the NCERT Solutions Class 6 History Chapter 4 “What Books and Burials Tell Us”, we have provided the answers to the let’s recall and let’s discuss section. Questions under let’s do section are for students as an extra activity and project, so that they can research further on the topic.
Intext Question, Page – 36
Q. List the languages you have heard about and try and identify the families to which they belong.
Answer:The languages used in the sub-continent are :
- Tamil, Telgu, Kannada and Malayalam belong to the Dravidian family.
- Assamese, Manipuri belong to Tibeto-Burman family.
- Marathi, Oriya Santhali Austro-Asiatic family.
Intext Questions, Page – 37
Q. Do you think chariots were also important ? Give reasons for your answer. Read the verses and find out what are the modes of transport that are mentioned.
Answer:Chariots were important because they were main means of transport. The other means of transport was the carts.
Q. Look at Map 1 (Page 2) and list 5 rivers not mentioned in the Rigveda.
Answer:The rivers which were not mentioned in the Rigveda are :
Intext Questions, Page – 39
Q. Read the previous section once more and see whether you can find out what the rajas did.
Answer:The rajas did not have the capital cities, palaces or armies, nor did they collect taxes. Generally the sons did not automatically succeed fathers as rajas. The assemblies chose leaders who were often brave and skillful warriors.
Q. Do any of these names sound familiar ?Answer:The word ‘jana’ sounds familiar. It was used during Janapada age in ancient India to describe people or the community as whole. It is still used in Hindi and some other languages to denote ‘the common people’. The word ‘vish’ was also used in the same period but now it is not in common use.
Intext Questions, Page – 40
Q. There were several things that people did to make megaliths. We have made a list here. Try and arrange them in the correct order : digging pits in the earth, transporting stones, breaking boulders, placing stones in position, finding suitable stone, shaping stones, burying the dead.
- digging pits in the earth.
- finding suitable stones
- breaking boulders
- shaping stones
- burying the dead
- placing stones in position
Q. Was iron used in the Harappan cities.
Answer:The archaeologist have not found any evidence which can show that iron was used in the Harappan cities.
Intext Questions, Page – 42
Q. Do you think this was the body of a chief. Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:Most probably this was the body of a chief because he had a different type of burial from the rest of the people. He was found buried in a large, four legged clay jar in the courtyard of a five – roomed house (one of the largest house at the site) in the centre of the settlement. This house also had a granary. The body had a cross legged position. The other were buried in the ground, laid out straight, with the head towards the north.
Q. How do you think he found out about the human body in such great detail ?
Answer:Chakra mentions in his book Chakra Samhita that human body has 360 bones. Chakra arrived at this figure by counting the teeth, joints and cartilage. He may have made a detailed study of the skeltal remains of the human body. He may have taken bony structure from the burial places (may be of the poor people).
Intext Questions, Page – 43
Q. Use this evidence to list the possible occupations of the people at Inamgaon.
Answer:Archaeologists have found seeds of wheat, barley, rice, pulses, millets, peas and sesame. Bones of number of animals, many bearing cut marks that show that they have been used as food have also been found. They include cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, dog, horse, ass, pig, sambhar, antelope, hare and mongoose, besides birds, crocodile, turtle, crab and fish. There is evidence that fruits such as ber, amla, jamun, dates and varieties of berries were collected. From this we can conclude that main occupation of the people were :
- Collection of fruits and berries.
Q. List one difference between the raja of the Rigveda and these kings.
Answer:The “Raja” of the Rigveda did not live in palaces. They did not have capital, cities and armies, as the chinese kings of the same time.
Q. Imagine you live in Inamgaon 3000 years ago and the chief has died last night. Today your parents are preparing for the burial. Describe the scene, including how foods is being prepared for the funeral. What do you think would be offered ?
Answer:The chief had died last night. The whole community had gathered near his house to pay their last homage. May be they are wearing white coloured clothes. In the fields outside people had collected things needed for the burial. The fire is lighted and some people are cooking food. May be the rice is being cooked along with vegetables in the mud pot or they may be cooking that food which was relished by the chief. The people are chanting the holy prayers, otherwise there was silence all around.
Let’s Recall, Page – 44
1. Match the columns
- Sukta Stone boulder
- Chariots Sacrifice
- Yajna Well-said
- Dasa Used in battles
- Megalith Slave
- Sukta : Well-said
- Chariots : Used in battles
- Yajna : Sacrifice
- Dasa : Slave
- Megalith : Stone boulder
2. Complete the sentences: (a) Slaves were used for ________ (b) Megaliths are found in _________ (c) Stone circles or boulders on the surface were used to _______ (d) Port-holes were used for _________ (e) People at Inamgaon ate _________
Answer:(a) various kind of work.(b) Deccan in the north, east and Kashmir.(c) cover the burial places.(d) fruits, cereals and meat.
Let’s Discuss, Page – 44
3. In what ways are the books we read today different from the Rigveda ?
Answer:The books we read today are printed on paper. The Rigveda used to be written on birch bark.
4. What kind of evidence from burials do archaelogists use to find out whether there were social differences amongst those who were buried ?Answer:Archaelogists have found burial places which help them to reconstruct the past and tell about the society. At Brahmagiri, the archaeologists have found one skelton buried with 33 gold beads, 2 stone beads, 4 copper bangles and one conch shell. Other skeltons have only a few pots. These burials suggest that there were some differences in status amongst the people who were buried. Some were rich, others poor, some chiefs others followers.
5. In what ways do you think that the life of the raja was different from that of a dasa or dasi ?Answer:The rajas did not have capitals, palaces or armies, nor did they collect taxes. Generally the sons did not automatically succeed fathers as rajas.There were people who did not perform sacrifices and probably spoke different languages. Later the term came to mean dasa or slave. Slaves were men and women captured in the war. They were treated as the property of the owners, who could make them do any work they wanted.
Let’s Do, Page – 45
6. Find out whether your school library has a collection of books on religion, and list the names of five books from this collection.
Answer:The five books on religion are
- Sikhs – Guru Granth Sahib
- Zorastrainism – Zend-ei-Avesta
- Islam – Quran
- Christians – Bible
- Judaism – Old testament
7. Write down a short poem or song that you have memorised. Did you hear or read the poem or song ? How did you learn it by heart ?
Answer:आओ बच्चों तुम्हे दिखाएं ,झाँकी हिंदुस्तान की। इस मिटटी से तिलक करो ,यह धरती है बलिदान की।
We heard the poem and learnt it by heart with the help of a teacher.
8. In the Rigveda, people were described in terms of the work they did and the languages they spoke. In the table below, fill in the names of six people you know, choosing three men and three women. For each of them mention the work they do and the languages they speak. Would you like to add anything else to the description ?